Maharashtra is a state in the western region of India and is the nation’s second-most populous state and the third largest state by area in India. Its coastline is 330 miles (530 km) long along the Arabian Sea. The state has a large, multimodal transportation system with the largest road network in India. Its capital, the Mumbai city is equivalent of New York City and Los Angeles, the financial capital and entertainment (Bollywood) capital of the country
It is bordered by the Arabian Seato the west and the Indian states of Karnataka, Telangana, Goa, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Maharashtra is the wealthiest and most developed state in India, contributing 15% of the country’s industrial output and 13.3% of its GDP (2006–07).
During ancient period around 230 BCE Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty which ruled the region for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. The Chalukya dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the 6th century to the 8th century and the two prominent rulers werePulakesi II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha and Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the 8th century.
The Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the 8th to the 10th century. The Arab traveler Sulaiman called the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (Amoghavarsha) as “one of the 4 great kings of the world” From the early 11th century to the 12th century the Deccan Plateau was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. In the 17th century, the Marathas rose under the leadership of Shivaji against the Mughals, who ruled a large part of India.
By 1760, the Maratha Empire had reached its zenith with a territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of the Indian sub-continent. After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the empire ended and most of Maharashtra became part of Bombay State under the British Raj. After Indian independence, Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti demanded unification of all Marathi-speaking regions under one state.
Maharashtra occupies the western and central part of the country and has a long coastline stretching nearly 720 kilometers along the Arabian Sea. The Sahyadri Mountainranges provide a physical backbone to the state on the west, while the Satpura Hills along the north and Bhamragad-Chiroli-Gaikhuri ranges on the east serve as its natural borders.